Galleta-CD-gB-2e-Book – 2. English Edition – 2014/2015

Coordinated by: J.M. Díaz Nafría, F. Salto Alemany, M. Pérez-Montoro Gutiérrez

Developed by: Juan Miguel Aguado, Carlos Aguilar, Basil Al Hadithi, Yorgos Andreadakis, Balu Athreya, Leticia Barrionuevo, Mark Burgin, Sylvia Burset, Søren Brier, Manuel Campos, Rafael Capurro, Eva Carbonero, Emilia Curras, José Maria Díaz, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Peter Fleissner, Anto Florio, Anabel Fraga, Christian Fuchs, Xosé Antón García-Sampedro, Roberto Gejman, Mehrad Golkhosravi, Daniel Gómez, Igor Gurevich, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Anthony Hoffmann, Agustín Jiménez, Manuel Liz, Rosa Macarro, Alfredo Marcos, Estela Mastromatteo, Jorge Morato, José Antonio Moreiro, Mercedes Osorio , Julio Ostalé, Mario Pérez-Montoro, Carmen Requena, Alexis Rocha, Blanca Rodríguez, Francisco Salto, Lydia Sánchez, Sonia Sánchez-Cuadrado, Carlos Sarmiento, Jérôme Segal, Margarita Vázquez

Published: Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena – ISBN : 978-9942-8548-3-4, with Creative Common License 3.0

Introduction

“There have always been thinkers to believe that the fields of human knowledge betrays a fundamental unity. In modern times people ready to discuss this unity have come under grave suspicion. Surely, the critics argue, no man is so presumptuous as to imagine that he can comprehend more than a tiny fraction of the scope of contemporary science. […] And yet there are still men prepared to pursue the path of unity, and to discuss problems in an inter-disciplinary fashion: that is, without regard to the specialised viewpoint of any one branch of science.”
Stafford BEER (Cybernetics and Management, 1959)

Four years after appearing the first book edition of the glossariumBITri (gB), it faces now a new phase of development, in which this new book version represents a milestone. The first development phase, 2008-2010, was clearly marked by an intensive cooperative work to stand up the clarification enterprise in which the gB is embarked on. Right after such phase, the gB was nurtured through valuable inputs covering essential aspects as semiotics, computation, complexity, etc., by distinguished researchers who have certainly enriched not only this book but the working team who is now before a more ambitious horizon.
p1-gB-2ed.pngBesides some improvements in previous articles, the most important additions to the previous edition, incorporated herewith, corresponds to the articles developed in the areas of algorithmic theory, complexity theory, General Theory of Information and Cybersemiotics that we heartily thank to the cherished contributions of Mark Burgin and Søren Brier. Nevertheless, the flesh of the glossariumBITri has been enriched as well through entries, which do not show up in this book since they are still under review or discussion, but they surely will in the next edition. They are, of course, available in the interactive-gB. For this dressing up the naked bones of the gB, we warmly thank the contributions provided by Balu Athreya, Igor Gurevich, Basil Al-Hadithi, Agustín Jiménez, Alexis Rocha, Daniel Gómez, Carlos Sarmiento. The incorporation of some of the topics which are now available, either in this book or in the interactive-gB was simply a must (as algorithmic information), others represent an initiation into fields we have to deepen (as information in biological sciences). But nonetheless, if we take into account all the concepts we have not weaved yet into the network of clarified concepts, metaphors, theories and problems, then we can clearly state that we are at the very beginning. By simply looking into the interactive-gB’s list of open voices, which are still empty, or into the number of voice proposal we have not open yet, it is easy to conclude we are before a large and of course open enterprise. (more…)

First page of the power point presentation

By José María Díaz Nafría (University of León, Spain; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

It is the purpose of this contribution arguing that emergence, on the one hand, exists as something new in nature; on the other hand, that it is something transcending classical computation. To this end, it is suggested a careful generalization of the concept of agency, proposed by Stuart Kauffman as system able to perform at least one thermodynamic work cycle, throughout all the levels of complexity – from pre‐geometry to social contexts –. We set off from the level of pre‐geometry (described in terms of spin networks in the sense of Roger Penrose) leading up to social systems. At this higher level, we deal with agents who have self‐reflection and try to reconstruct objects and situations from essentially limited information. To that purpose hermeneutical agency is introduced, in which the cycles defined by observation‐representation can be seen in thermodynamic terms, and is the goal for such agent the reduction of the complexity of the related representation, generally linked to some pragmatic situation. At this level, innovation can be visualized, in the best case, as emergence in social contexts. But in order to move throughout all the latter of complexity, we propose as unifying principle that the pair energy‐matter can be regarded alongside the pair information‐structure (representing such bipolarity the difference and relation between potentiality and actuality). Whereas energy is conceptualized as potentiality to perform work (change), we claim that information can be visualized – from the outset – as potentiality to utilize such work in benefit of the organization of the system, being structure the actualization of such organization potential represented by information. Since the beneficial use of work is fundamental for defining agency, this general understanding of information facilitate the task of properly extending the concept of agency to the whole hierarchy of complexity and to visualize agents as playing natural games at the different levels. Using such viewpoint we shall map, on the one hand, agency dynamics through game theoretical applications; on the other hand, evolutionary system dynamics through mathematical category theory.

e-Book – 1. bilingual Edition2010

Coordinated by: J.M. Díaz Nafría, F. Salto Alemany, M. Pérez-Montoro Gutiérrez

Developed by: Juan Miguel Aguado, Carlos Aguilar, Basil Al Hadithi, Yorgos Andreadakis, Leticia Barrionuevo, Sylvia Burset, Manuel Campos, Rafael Capurro, Eva Carbonero, Emilia Curras, José Maria Díaz, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Peter Fleissner, Anto Florio, Anabel Fraga, Christian Fuchs, Xosé Antón García-Sampedro, Roberto Gejman, Mehrad Golkhosravi, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Anthony Hoffmann, Manuel Liz, Rosa Macarro, Alfredo Marcos, Estela Mastromatteo, Jorge Morato, José Antonio Moreiro, Mercedes Osorio , Julio Ostalé, Mario Pérez-Montoro, Carmen Requena, Blanca Rodríguez, Francisco Salto, Lydia Sánchez, Sonia Sánchez-Cuadrado, Jérôme Segal, Margarita Vázquez

Published: Universidad de León – ISBN : 978-84-9773-554-4, with Creative Common License 3.0

Introduction

Terms included in this glossary recap some of the main concepts, theories, problems and metaphors concerning INFORMATION in all spheres of knowledge.  This is the first edition of an ambitious enterprise covering at its completion all relevant notions relating to INFORMATION in any scientific context. As such, this Glossarium BITri is part of the broader project BITrum, which is committed to the mutual understanding of all disciplines devoted to information across fields of knowledge and practice.

This glossary pretends to make explicit the conflicts and agreements among use and meaning of terms related to information phenomena. Information is approached from opposing paradigms and also from competing and cooperating disciplines. Both in science and in ordinary life, conceptual, ethical, technical and societal problems regard information in an essential way. This glossary does not endorse or presuppose any paradigm or any theory, but rather locates into a public, explicit and commonly understandable space some of the crucial assumptions dividing informational concepts, theories, problems and metaphors. Moreover, we purport to embrace all distinct paradigms with a critical and comprehensive attitude.

https://bitrumcontributions.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/glossariumbitri1.pdf

The glossary is the result of an original methodology, which places any entrance under the responsibility of its editor. Authors possibly distinct from the editor contribute to different articles with texts, comments or discussions. Since authors come from many distinct fields of knowledge, each article should reflect many perspectival but rigorous approaches.

The glossary is an open work: the number and contents of all its entrances are updated and submitted to revision by editors and authors. For this reason, this first edition is only a first step in the active development of this collaborative methodology. Any interested reader wishing to contribute, may contact the general editors.

This glossary is most indebted to the enthusiasm and work of José María Díaz Nafría. The editorial team, authors and correctors thank the Universidad de León and Caja España for their support to this initiative.

Francisco Salto Alemany, León, November 2010

Contents: Introduction (in English and Spanish), Glossary (in English and Spanish), Indexes, Methodology, Abbreviations, Editorial team.

Carlos Aguilar, Lidya Sánchez & Manuel Campos (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain)

In this article we show how it is possible to use Channel Theory [Barwise and Seligman, 1997] for modeling the process of information extraction realized by audiences of audio-visual contents. To do this, we rely on the concepts proposed by Channel Theory and, especially, its treatment of representational systems. We then show how the information an agent is capable of extracting from a content depends on the number of channels he is able to establish between the content and the set of classifications he is able to discriminate. The agent can endeavor the extraction of information through these channels from the totality of content; however, we discuss the advantages of extracting from its constituents in order to obtain a greater number of informational items that represent it. After showing how the extraction process is endeavored for each channel, we propose a method of representation of all the informative values an agent can obtain from a content using a matrix constituted by the channels the agent is able to establish on the content (source classifications), and the ones he can understand as individual (destination classifications). We finally show how this representation allows reflecting the evolution of the informative items through the evolution of audio-visual content.

  • Full article published in Sciforum (preliminary version), site of the FIS2010 – 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science, Beijin, August 2010.
  • A reviewed version will be published in the forthcoming issue of the journal TripleC 8(2).

Roberto Gejman (Computer Science Departament, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, CHILE)

An integrated set of definitions and distinctions in the information, communication and knowledge field is proposed.  It is argued that more attention must be given to records, usually confused with information.  Descriptions are shown to be the fundamental facts behind information. Information is defined as an abstract concept, free of material or syntactic constraints.  Information is observer free but it is dependent on the shared ontological background of communities. The world may be characterized as being structured by only six components.  Knowledge is the capacity to act effectively and it is not information. Information quantity and its relation with the entropy of physical systems are shown to be more ambiguous and less important than they are usually thought of.  It is argued that information studies should move on from these old concerns to confront the vital information challenges in this globalized information society with information superabundance.

  • Full article published in Triple C, 7(2), special issue What is really information?
  • Spanish article published in ¿Qué es información?, 2008

Juan Miguel Aguado (School of Information and Communication Studies, Universidad de Murcia, Spain)

By attempting to fix an observable magnitude, the concept of information involves a cognitive model that enables a double ontological rupture: between subject and world, on one side, and between cognition and action, on the other side. A genealogical approach to information as a simultaneously epistemological and cognitive crossroad highlights the centrality of observation theory in the resolution of its contradictions. The recursive nature of observation inherent to informational logics makes constructivist assumptions especially relevant as a key contribution for an epistemological revision of the ideas of information and communication.

  • Full article published in Triple C, 7(2), special issue What is really information?
  • Spanish article published in ¿Qué es información?, 2008

Manuel Liz (Faculty of Philosophy, University of La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain)

Many times, the notion of information is used in such a way that the following two theses are suggested: 1) that the world might be no more than information, and 2) that our minds might be no more that information. This paper rejects both theses. In relation to that, I will argue for the need to take into account non-informational aspects of reality that are epistemically accessible. Only that way, we could deal with the problem of selecting a determinate semantic content and with the problem of error. The two more common strategies to deal with these problems appeal to some primitive “referential capacities” or to some special kinds of (natural) “functions”. We propose another strategy based on very simple processes of signalization. With the help of that strategy, we offer a new way of defining semantic content.

  • Full article published in Triple C, 7(2), special issue What is really information?
  • Spanish article published in ¿Qué es información?, 2008