Fig-Knowledge integration network

Conceptual network as: a) passive network of concepts evolving through scientific inquiry and communication; b) network of interacting agents (scientists who have their own conceptual network {K} evolving through scientific communication).

By: José María Díaz-Nafría (BITrum Research Group, Spain; Madrid Open University, Spain), Mark Burgin (University of California, Los Angeles, USA), Blanca Rodriguez-Bravo (Universidad de León, Spain)

Published in: G. Dodig-Crnkovic, M. Burgin (eds.), Philosophy and Methodology of Information, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. DOI:

Abstract: The chapter addresses the general problem of assessing the integration of knowledge from different scientific disciplines joined in interdisciplinary settings and its specific application to the study of information. The method is based in the development of Interdisciplinary-Glossaries as tools for the elucidation of the network of concepts involved which also serve as proxies of the corresponding knowledge integration. We show the results obtained from the application of the network approach to a specific interdisciplinary-glossary devoted to the study of information. These results show the capacity of the methodology depicted to guide the future development of knowledge integration by the corresponding interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary teams, as well as to assess their integration achievements. However, the results described are rather qualitative with respect to the knowledge integration attainments. In order to offer a quantitative assessment, we propose an enhanced methodology in which each contribution and participant in the elucidation process is identified by the knowledge domains involved using a set of domains adapted from the higher categories of the Universal Decimal Classification. Such identification allows assessing the integration through a multidimensional perspective based on: (i) the diversity of the disciplines involved, measured in terms of Shannon Diversity Index, and (ii) The effective integration achieved through the meeting of different perspectives, measured through the analysis of both the semantic network of elucidated concepts and the network of participant researchers, in terms of the average minimal distance between any two nodes and the clustering coefficient, which are combined through the small-world-coefficient, σ.

South America Flow-bn-m-marco

Digital communication flow in 2016 for Latin America, whose digital communications are practically spinning around a unique hub outside Latin America. It therefore exhibits an structural lack of self-organisation capacity.

By: José María Díaz-Nafría (Universidad de León, Spain | Munich University of Applied Sciences), Teresa Guarda (Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, Ecuador)

Published in: K. Von Helmolt, D. Ittstein (eds.), Interkulturalität digital – Digitalisierung interkulturell?!, Hannover: Ibidem Verlag.


Intercultural life requires, first of all, a dense net of connections among people belonging to the same culture and with the components of the context in which this culture exists; secondly, a weaker but nevertheless effective network where interactions among different cultures take place. The former is a necessary condition for the very existence of cultural life and its capacity to evolve; the latter is necessary for communication and cooperation between different cultures, therefore, it creates the intercultural space where intercultural life properly exists.

The current digital networks, backed up by big-data technologies, connect people, processes, data, and things, turning information into actions, creating new capabilities and extraordinary opportunities. These digital networks allegedly enable a perfect symbiosis in the interaction between people and machines anywhere, at any time, using any device. In principle, as it is commonly stated, they seem to provide linkage between virtually everybody and everything, thus far exceeding the aforementioned basic requirements for intercultural life. Yet, what is the actual control we really have regarding this connectedness for individuals and cultures? How pervasive is this connectedness really? Is it accessible for everybody and every culture in the same way? What are the filtering mechanisms that make the signalling effective at different levels, and particularly among cultural and intercultural levels? …


glossariumBITri’s Co-occurrence network. Term frequency occurrence & co-ocurrence > 50; Colours: semantic clusters determined by intermediation measurements. Adverbial and prepositional categories are excluded.

By: José María Díaz-Nafría (BITrum-Research Group, Spain; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany), Teresa Guarda (Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, Ecuador; Algoritmi Centre, Minho University, Portugal), Iván Coronel (Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, Ecuador)

Published in: Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, vol 94.
Springer, Cham. DOI:

Abstract: The paper presents a general approach to assess knowledge integration as a basis to evaluate the performance of transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches with respect to their knowledge integration capacity. The method is based on the development of Interdisciplinary-glossaries as tools for the elucidation of the conceptual networks involved in interdisciplinary studies. Such ID-glossaries are used as proxies of the corresponding knowledge integration, which is measured through the structural analysis of the co-occurrence network of terms. This approach is applied to an ID-glossary devoted to the general study of information, called glossariumBITri. The results show the capacity of the approach to detect integration achievements, challenges and barriers. Its qualitative nature is complemented by an enhanced methodology in which both the diversity   of disciplines and the knowledge integration can be measured in a bi-dimensional index. To that purpose each contribution to the target ID-glossary is identified by the knowledge domains involved (using a set of knowledge domains adapted from the higher categories of the Universal Decimal Classification), while the integration is measured in terms of the small-world coefficient of the co-occurrence of terms.


Nesting of organizational structures from grassroots cooperatives to Fishing Developing Unit.

By: Teresa Guarda (Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena–UPSE, La Libertad, Ecuador), José María Díaz-Nafría (BITrum-Research Group, Spain; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany), Maria Fernanda Augusto (Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE, Quito, Ecuador), José Avelino Vitor (Instituto Politécnico da Maia, Maia, Portugal).

Published in: Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, vol 94. Springer, Cham.

Abstract: Sustained globalization by digital technologies has dramatically increased the capacity of the capitalist environment, putting at risk the preservation of cul-tural and community identities, interfering with their ability to act and adapt in a sustainable way to their environments. This paper presents a sustainable management strategy for the promotion of territorial economic development initiatives for artisanal fishing cooperatives of the province of Santa Elena, so that it can be effectively constituted as a political strategy for the coun-try’s development, seeking not only macroeconomic goals for stability and productivity excellence, but also socio-economic goals aimed at preserving natural resources, the redistribution of social wealth and the reduction of so-cial inequalities.

Fig-biciLABBy: José María Díaz-Nafría (BITrum-Research Group, Spain | Universidad de León, Spain | Munich University of Applied Sciences), Teresa Guarda (Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, Ecuador)

Published in: Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, vol 94. Springer, Cham. DOI:

Abstract: This project aims to develop a bicycle mobility promotion program and studies to improve urban life through intervention in urban planning and the development of intelligent territories based on bicycle lending systems with the ability to collect statistical information from mobility and other parameters of interest for sustainability and health. The aim is to achieve a long-term operation of the biciLAB under the auspices of the universities and local entities linked to its application within the scope of public policy.


Co-occurrence network for a shared field diary

By: Enrique Díez-Gutiérrez (Facultad de Educación, Universidad de León) y José María Díaz- Nafría (Facultad de estudios interdisciplinares, Munich University of Applied Sciences)

Published in: Comunicar, 54, pp. 49-58. doi: 10.3916/C54-2018-05

Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify and analyse the ubiquitous learning acquired though blending education settings devoted to the “lifelong training of trainers” and how these contribute to the development of a conscious, critic and engaged citizenship. Through active exploration of the learning process, the study analyses the “soft skills” acquired which enhance performance in work and daily life, with the purpose of detecting the process of ubiquitous learning often overlooked in formal education. To this end, the study case presented here draws upon a data triangulation of qualitative and quantitative multisource information (questionnaires, interviews, participant observation, discussion groups, individual and collective diaries) which includes the study of the semantic networks consisting of learners’ own utterances. The results obtained indicate that the soft skills related to the capacity of self-development, the use of innovative resources, the enhancement of social cooperation, the ability to meet cognitive and social challenges, and the functional learning as produced though expanded learning, have the potential to pave the way for the empowerment of peoples, communities and social movements. But this form of expanded learning, as open, collaborative, democratic and committed learning, must be actively supported if future generations are not only to be consumers but also cooperative producers in a socially shared world.


Network topology similar to Internet.

By: J.M. Díaz-Nafría (Faculty of Systems & Telecommunications, Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, La Libertad, Santa Elena, Ecuador | Universidad de León, Leon, Spain | Department of General and Interdisciplinary Studies, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Munich, Germany)

Published in: Elias G. CARAYANNIS, David F. J. CAMPBELL and Marios P. EFTHYMIOPOULOS (eds.) (2018). Handbook of Cyber‐Development, Cyber‐Democracy and Cyber‐Defense, Berlin: Springer.

Abstract: Most attempts to use the potentials of information technologies in benefit of the fulfillment of the democratic requirements from the local to the global levels are
based on the power of social networks and the utilization of big-data approaches.
However, both the network itself and the portliness of data processing have fundamental limitations that need to be overcome when the size of the population is larger than a reduced group. As to cope with the related complexity, the network provides in certain conditions a characteristic structure which facilitates the emergence of new functional features and consequently a system. It is this structure – the fibers of the systemic relations – and new functionalities concerning the circulation of data what change the portliness of data processing into an appropriate percolation and management of relevant information. By these means, complexity and the corresponding information flow are managed at the lowest possible level, while cooperation and higher-level management is ready to cope just with the excess of complexity the lower level cannot manage properly by itself. But this is the very idea of subsidiarity whose application to the organization of heterogeneous societies has been a foundation of decentralized government since the sixteenth century in many different contexts.

At the age of the global information society, the necessary management of global issues (environment, geopolitics, inequality, etc.) requires both proper levelism and information management from the peoples to communities, to national authorities, and to international institutions. Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model provides a suitable approach to deploy subsidiarity with the backbone of an information and communication infrastructure based on the acquisition, circulation, and processing of relevant information to enable decentralized, democratic decision-making.

Acknowledgement: This work was carried out in 2016-2017 within the framework of Prometeo project supported by Senescyt, Ecuador.


2012-C&L-Information a multidimensional reality-p1By: José María Díaz Nafría (Universidad de León, Spain; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

Published in: Emilia CURRÁS & Nuria LLORET (eds.) (2012), Systems Science and Collaborative Information Systems: Theories, Practices and New Research, pp. 37-70, Hershey PA: IGI Global publication.

Abstract: Making an incursion in the forest of problems and theories of information, beyond observing a lack of mutual understanding among information theorists, we find out that information can be understood as a multifaceted reality. The variety of theories is in itself a reflection of the complex nature of information. A systematic approach to these theories, looking for common and divergent understandings render– so to speak – a cubist picture of what information really is, showing for instance its multidimensionality. In other words, when we say there is information in cables and organisms, in antennas and societies, in robots and mental states, we do not have to be mistaken: information is considered in each case in different aspects.
Delving into the nature of observation, we will find a solid ground to pose information as a bridge between objects and subjects, therefore providing the possibility to overcome the inveterate segregation of the objectivist and subjectivist understandings. As we will see, such vision also provides the possibility to articulate an understanding of information in its multifaceted reality.


Haeckel’s 1874 version of vertebrate embryonic development

By: José M. Díaz Nafría (Universidad de León, Spain;  University of Santa Elena (UPSE), Ecuador; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

Chapter published as: DÍAZ-NAFRÍA, J.M. (2017). eSubsidiarity: An Ethical Approach for Living in Complexity. En W. Hofkirchner, M. Burgin (eds.), The Future Information Society: Social and Technological Problems, Singapour: World Scientific Publishing. DOI: 10.1142/9789813108974_0004.

Abstract: It is needless to insist on the significant increase of the complexity we are living in. Whereas the social order arisen with modernity encompassed – at the level of the nation-states – a reduction of social complexity through cultural normalization, the new social and political order is nowadays, as a consequence of globalization, to be intercultural, multilingual and even multi-national. We may encounter a different way of diminishing the complexity at the level of the human agency, but we have to do it in a different way as modernity did it. The management of information and complexity in biology provides some clues to this endeavor. As we see, living beings through its management of complexity enact the subsidiarity principle that can equally be applied to the organization of decentralized political systems. It enables the decrease of complexity at the level of the heterarchical organized agents, while preserving the complexity at the global level. eSubsidiarity was essayed in Allende’s Chile following Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model and in many other human organizations. Could it become a new ethical paradigm at the information age?

p1-cybersyn etc.jpgBy: Henry Mauricio Ortiz Osorio (University of León, Spain); José María Díaz Nafría (University of Santa Elena, Santa Elena, Ecuador; Universidad de León, Spain; Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

Published in: Systema 4(2) : 10-19 (2016)

Abstract: During the government of Salvador Allende, Chile implemented a paradigmatic system of control and regulation of production, emerged from the need of controlling and knowing the Chilean nationalized industry concerning the needs to provide. Allende believed that the transformation pathway to socialism could be different to those that had existed, and he suggested a model of integration with the worker as the core of process management and decision making. In that sense the Cybersyn project was designed with the goal of having a decentralized state control of the industrial production able to attend real needs properly and timely. Starting on real-time information that would anticipate and correct potential incidents before they even occur. The project provided valuable information on the nationalized companies for coordination and operation, being a political tool of vital importance for Allende’s government for which decision-making issues reach the most proper level. Latin American current processes of social disruption allow us to analyze the historical perspective of this project to find parallelizing, similarities and common points that allow us to extend the analysis of industrial relevance of these cases. Furthermore, the current political, economic and social reality has evolve in such a way that the Cybersyn model requires an adaptation to new relevant complex features of the social system which challenge its practicality.